Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a chemical made up of two long molecules arranged in a spiral to form a double helix structure. It is the hereditary material (genetic code) which contains the instruction that a living organism needs for development, function and growth. DNA can also be used as a form of long-term storage of information. The DNA sequences must be turned into messages used in protein production.
DNA is a nucleic acid composed of two chains, each composed of a sequence four nitrogen-containing nucleobases: (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. The two chains are arranged in a spiral around eachother to form a double helix.
DNA is located in the cell nucleus. An organism's complete set of DNA is called its 'genome'. Small amounts of DNA can be located in mitochondria, known as mtDNA, or as plasmids in procaryotes and some eucaryotes.
DNA replication is the process of copying double-stranded DNA molecule. Each individual strands is a template for the reproduction of the opposite strand.
Recombinant DNA is DNA which has been artificially formed through the combination of multiple genetic materials from different sources that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
DNA sequencing refers to a range of techniques that analyze sections of the genome to single-nucleotide resolution.